Mire jó a napelem?

Úton- útfélen belebotlunk napelemeket reklámozó hirdetésekbe, azokat bemutató cikkekbe. Mit teszünk ezekkel az írásokkal? Átugorjuk, esetleg beleolvasva bólintunk egyet, ezzel elkönyvelve, hogy ilyen is van. De tudjuk pontosan, hogy mit hagytunk figyelmen kívül? Nem célunk, hogy hosszú, unalmas leírást adjunk a napelemekről, csupán pár sorban foglaljuk össze, hogy mire jók ezek a szerkezetek, és vajon van-e helyük a mindennapokban.

fotó: enhome.hu

fotó: enhome.hu

Kezdjük a leggyakoribb hibával. Fontos, hogy ne keverjük össze a napelemet a napkollektorral. Jóllehet mindkettő a napsugarakat hasznosítja, de működési elvük és céljuk eltérő. A napkollektor meleg vizet állít elő, míg a napelem a napsugárzást a mindennapok elengedhetetlen tényezőjévé, villamos energiává alakítja. Na de hogyan is működik egy napelemes rendszer? A napelemek egyenáramot termelnek, amit a szerkezet lelkének számító inverterbe vezetnek, ami itt váltóárammá alakul.

Mi történik, ha akkor is áramot termel a szerkezetünk, amikor nem használjuk? Teljesen felesleges, költséges és környezetet szennyező megpróbálni akkumulátorral tárolni, kivéve, ha a lakóhelyi sajátosságok ezt kifejezetten nem indokolják (pl. tanya). Azonban valóban tárolni kell a fel nem használt áramot (mivel jellemzően nyáron és délben termel a legtöbbet), erre ott az elektromos hálózat.

Az eljárás nagyon egyszerű. Az áramszolgáltató felszerel egy oda-vissza mérő órát, és a helyi hálózatban más felhasználók átveszik az áramot, amire éppen nincs szükségünk, így ott kerül felhasználásra, ahol pedig szükség van rá. Majd az esti, vagy téli időszakban visszavesszük, így éves elszámolásban hozzuk az egyenlegünket. A 287/2008 (XI.28) Korm. rendelet kötelezi az áramszolgáltatókat, hogy vegyék át a zöldáramot, méghozzá meghatározott áron. A napelemes rendszerek telepítése egyelőre nem túl pénztárcakímélő, a befektetés megtérülési ideje is 10-15 év körül mozog. Ellenben hasznos segítség lehet olyan helyeken, ahol nincs kiépítve elektromos hálózat, és erre lehetőség sincs. Arról nem is beszélve, hogy a napelemek használatával nagymértékben csökkenthetjük az energia előállításával járó környezetszennyezést. Az egyik legmegbízhatóbb napelem rendszer tervező és kivitelező cég az enHome.




49 thoughts on “Mire jó a napelem?

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